Introduction

Sustainability is everybody’s responsibility and the collective goal of our society to make sure that our needs at the current time are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The steel industry recognises the need to act on sustainability topics and has been undertaking various initiatives and programmes to deliver its commitment to a sustainable society.

Measuring key aspects of the industry’s economic, environmental and social performance and reporting at a global level on a yearly basis is one of the major and long-standing efforts that the steel industry undertakes to manage its performance, demonstrate its commitment to sustainability and to enhance transparency. These Sustainability Indicators of the steel industry are directly related to the worldsteel Sustainability Principles and are also closely aligned with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, reflecting the evolving business environment as well as the expectations and requirements of society. worldsteel members have been providing data for the 8 Sustainability Indicators, spending significant resources to collect and measure their performance every year since 2004 for worldsteel and the many reporting frameworks that require such information. In 2023, 94 steel companies and associations contributed to the data collection. Crude steel produced by companies that reported on one or more indicators for fiscal year 2022 was 990.2 million tonnes, representing 53% of global crude steel production. 77 organisations voluntarily provided data for one or more of the 8 indicators, 41 of which provided data for all 8 indicators.
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INDICATORS* UNIT 2020 2021 2022
ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
1. CO2 emissions intensity tonnes CO2 per tonne crude steel cast 1.88 1.91 1.91**
2. Energy intensity GJ per tonne crude steel cast 20.38 21.02 20.99**
3. Material efficiency % 97.86 97.56 97.65
4. Environmental management system % 96.13 95.66 96.15
SOCIAL PERFORMANCE
5. Lost time injury frequency rate injuries per million hours worked 0.85 0.85 0.65
6. Employee training training days per employee 7.15 6.72 7.78
ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE
7. Investment in new processes and products % 8.03 6.29 6.29
8. Economic value distributed % 97.77 93.78 96.57

* For details on the calculation methodology for each of these indicators, please refer to this section
** For details on indicators 1 and 2, please refer to this section

CO2 emissions and energy intensity

Since 2007, worldsteel has published a single annual global CO2 emissions intensity together with an energy intensity metric. These numbers are weighted based on the % split between the blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) and scrap-based electric arc furnace (EAF) global steel production routes. Since 2022, the global average value for both intensities now also incorporates a contribution from direct reduced iron (DRI)-based EAF steel production, given its rising importance as a key steel making process.
We consider that this new approach to calculating the global metric more accurately reflects global steel production today and in the future. Both the CO2 emissions and energy intensity for previous years have not been recalculated to reflect this change.

Further information on the worldsteel CO2 data collection methodology (including scope, boundaries and emission factors) can be found here: Climate Action Data Collection – mommado.com.

2021-2022 CO2 emissions and energy intensity

CO2 emissions intensity by production route Energy intensity by production route
tonnes CO2 per tonne of crude steel cast GJ per tonne of crude steel cast
2021 2022 2021 2022
Global average 1.91 1.91 21.02 20.99
BF-BOF 2.33 2.33 24.13 23.98
Scrap-EAF 0.66 0.68 10.07 10.20
DRI-EAF* 1.39 1.37 22.58 22.37
* Data concerning global crude steel production using DRI is not currently collected, the denominator in this calculation is therefore calculated by the worldsteel data management team based on information contained in worldsteel’s collective databases.

Calculation approach for global CO2 emissions intensity, 2022 onwards

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Calculation approach for energy intensity, 2022 onwards

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Indicators performance 2003-2022

Environmental performance Social performance Economic performance
CO2 emissions intensity Energy
intensity
Material efficiency Environmental management system Lost time injury frequency rate Employee training Investment in new processes and products Economic value distributed
(tonnes CO2/ tonne crude steel cast) (GJ/tonne crude steel cast) (% of materials converted to solid and liquid products and co-products) (% of employees & contractors working in EMS-registered production facilities) (injuries/million hours worked) (training days/employee) (% of revenue) (% of revenue)
2022 1.91 20.99 97.65 96.15 0.65 7.78 6.29 96.57
2021 1.91 21.02 97.56 95.66 0.85 6.72 6.29 93.78
2020 1.88 20.38 97.86 96.13 0.85 7.15 8.03 97.77
2019 1.82 19.81 97.49 97.16 0.83 6.90 7.09 98.27
2018 1.81 19.53 96.33 97.07 0.84 6.48 6.12 94.18
2017 1.83 19.93 96.49 96.49 0.97 6.26 5.79 95.43
2016 1.87 20.32 97.64 96.85 1.01 7.11 7.71 96.64
2015 1.87 20.25 97.36 93.59 1.17 6.75 8.22 100.09
2014 1.80 19.76 97.47 94.05 1.39 6.27 7.32 96.31
2013 1.82 20.08 98.00 90.18 1.60 7.80 8.53 96.83
2012 1.75 19.63 96.48 89.53 1.45 7.88 10.05 99.77
2011 1.76 19.81 96.11 89.93 1.91 7.74 8.28 95.65
2010 1.80 20.13 97.48 87.60 2.29 6.95 8.80 93.46
2009 1.81 20.49 97.94 88.89 2.46 8.47 10.22 90.52
2008 1.79 20.13 98.03 86.62 3.09 8.02 8.24 78.30
2007 1.80 20.10 97.94 85.07 4.44 11.10 7.76 78.18
2006 96.49 84.78 4.55 10.52 7.90
2005 96.96 82.69 4.15 12.28 6.91
2004 96.78 92.40 4.81 11.62 6.96
2003 96.09 90.92 7.46 6.37

Notes:

Indicators 1 and 2: CO2 emissions intensity and energy intensity are calculated with the worldsteel CO2 Data Collection methodology, which includes all scopes (1, 2, and some scope 3). The two intensities represent production weighted averages between blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF), scrap-based electric arc furnace (EAF) and direct reduced iron (DRI)-based EAF steel production.
Indicator 3: Only solid and liquid residues are included in this calculation, and process gases are not included.
Indicator 5: Lost time injury frequency rate includes fatalities and is calculated based on figures including contractors and employees.
Indicator 6: Employee training includes production and non-production facilities.
Indicator 7: Investment in new processes and products includes capital expenditure and R&D investment

Indicators trends 2013-2022

1. CO2 emissions intensity

Years Tonnes CO2 per tonne crude steel
2013 1.82
2014 1.80
2015 1.87
2016 1.87
2017 1.83
2018 1.81
2019 1.82
2020 1.88
2021 1.91
2022 1.91

2. Energy intensity

Years GJ per tonne crude steel
2013 20.08
2014 19.76
2015 20.25
2016 20.32
2017 19.93
2018 19.53
2019 19.81
2020 20.38
2021 21.02
2022 20.99

3. Material efficiency

Years %
2013 98.00
2014 97.47
2015 97.36
2016 97.64
2017 96.49
2018 96.33
2019 97.49
2020 97.86
2021 97.56
2022 97.65

4. Environmental management system

Years %
2013 90.18
2014 94.05
2015 93.59
2016 96.85
2017 96.49
2018 97.07
2019 97.16
2020 96.13
2021 95.66
2022 96.14

5. Lost time injury frequency rate

Years injuries per million hours worked
2013 1.60
2014 1.39
2015 1.17
2016 1.01
2017 0.97
2018 0.84
2019 0.83
2020 0.85
2021 0.85
2022 0.65

6. Employee training

Years training days per employee
2013 7.80
2014 6.27
2015 6.75
2016 7.11
2017 6.26
2018 6.48
2019 6.90
2020 7.15
2021 6.72
2022 7.78

7. Investment in new processes and products

Years %
2013 8.53
2014 7.32
2015 8.22
2016 7.71
2017 5.79
2018 6.12
2019 7.09
2020 8.03
2021 6.29
2022 6.29

8. Economic value distributed

Years %
2013 96.83
2014 96.31
2015 100.09
2016 96.64
2017 95.43
2018 94.18
2019 98.27
2020 97.77
2021 93.78
2022 96.57

Notes:
Indicators 1, 2 and 5: A descending curve demonstrates sustainability progress.
Indicators 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8: An ascending curve demonstrates sustainability progress.

Contributing organisations-2023 data collection

77 steel companies and associations listed below provided data for one or more of the 8 indicators.
41 companies (*) provided data for all 8 indicators.

1. Acciaierie Bertoli Safau S.p.A.*
2. ACERINOX S.A.*
3. Aceros AZA S.A.*
4. Aço Verde do Brasil (AVB)*
5. Aichi Steel Corporation
6. Algerian Qatari Steel (AQS)
7. AM/NS India (ArcelorMittal/Nippon Steel India)
8. Ansteel Group Corporation Limited
9. Aperam*
10. ArcelorMittal*
11. Badische Stahlwerke GmbH
12. Bangladesh Steel Re-Rolling Mills Limited
13. Baotou Iron & Steel (Group) Co., Ltd
14. BlueScope Steel Limited*
15. CELSA Group*
16. China Baowu Steel Group Corporation Limited
17. China Steel Corporation (CSC)*
18. CITIC PACIFIC Special Steel Group Co., Ltd
19. Cogne Acciai Speciali Spa*
20. Çolakoğlu Metalurji A.Ş.
21. Daido Steel Co., Ltd.
22. Diler Iron and Steel Co., Inc.
23. Duferco S.A.
24. elmarakbysteel*
25. Emirates Steel Arkan*
26. EZZ Steel*
27. Feng Hsin Steel Co., Ltd.*
28. Gerdau S.A.*
29. HBIS Group Co., Ltd.
30. HYUNDAI Steel Company*
31. Japan Stainless Steel Association (JSSA)
32. JFE Steel Corporation*
33. Jindal Shadeed Iron & Steel LLC*
34. Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL)
35. JSW Steel Limited*
36. KAPTAN DEMIR CELIK ENDUSTRISI VE TICARET A.S.
37. Kobe Steel, Ltd*
38. Kroman Çelik Sanayii A.Ş.
39. Liberty Speciality Steel (GFG Alliance)*
40. Liberty Steel Australia (GFG Alliance)*
41. Metinvest Holding LLC*
42. Mobarakeh Steel Company (MSC)
43. NatSteel Holdings Pte Ltd*
44. Nippon Kinzoku Co., Ltd.
45. Nippon Steel Corporation*
46. Nippon Steel Stainless Steel Corporation (NSSSC)
47. Nippon Yakin Kogyo Co., Ltd.
48. Nucor Corporation*
49. Ovako AB
50. POSCO Holdings*

51. PT Gunung Raja Paksi Tbk
52. Qatar Steel Company (Q.P.S.C.)*
53. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd (VIZAG Steel)
54. SABIC-Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (HADEED)*
55. Sahaviriya Steel Industries Public Company Limited (SSI)
56. SeAH Besteel Corporation*
57. SeAH Changwon Integrated Special Steel Corp.*
58. Shougang Group Co.,LTD
59. Siam Yamato Steel Company Corporation (SYS)
60. SIDENOR S.A.*
61. SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group)*
62. Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL)*
63. ŠTORE STEEL d.o.o.
64. SULB Company
65. Tang Eng Iron Works Co. Ltd.
66. Tata Steel*
67. Tenaris*
68. Ternium*
69. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF)
70. thyssenkrupp AG
71. TŘINECKÉ ŽELEZÁRNY, a.s
72. Tung Ho Steel Enterprise Corporation*
73. UGITECH SA
74. United States Steel Corporation*
75. Usinas Siderúrgicas de Minas Gerais S.A. (USIMINAS)*
76. voestalpine AG*
77. Wei Chih Steel Industrial Co.,Ltd.

Publicly available data was used for the 17 companies, including non-members, below:

1. Anyang Steel
2. Eregli Demir ve Çelik Fabrikalari TAS (Eregli Iron and Steel Works, Co.)
3. Fangda Steel
4. Hoa Phat
5. Hunan Steel Group
6. Jinxi steel
7. Jiuquan steel
8. Krakatau steel
9. Lingyuan steel
10. Liuzhou Steel
11. Nanjing Steel
12. Outokumpu Oyj
13. Salzgitter AG Stahl und Technologie
14. Sanming Steel
15. Shagang Group
16. Shandong Steel Group
17. SSAB AB

Definitions and calculation

Environmental performance
INDICATOR DEFINITION CALCULATION
1. CO2 emissions
intensity
This indicator calculates tonnes of CO2 emissions per tonne crude steel production as cast. It is calculated with the worldsteel CO2 Data Collection methodology, which includes all scopes (1, 2, and some scope 3). Global CO2 emissions intensity represents a weighted average between blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF), scrap-based electric arc furnace (EAF) and direct reduced iron (DRI)-based EAF steel production. Tonnes of CO2 emitted / tonnes of crude steel cast
2. Energy intensity This indicator measures the energy used to process the crude steel volume in GJ per tonne crude steel production as cast. Global energy intensity represents weighted average between blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF), scrap-based electric arc furnace (EAF) and direct reduced iron (DRI)-based EAF steel production. GJ of energy used / tonnes of crude steel cast
3. Material efficiency This indicator calculates the percentage of crude steel and co-products  compared to total solid and liquid output material (i.e. crude steel, co-products and waste landfilled or incinerated). Process gases are not included in the calculation. (crude steel + co-products) / (crude steel + co-products + waste)
4. Environmental
management
system
This indicator measures the percentage of employees and contractors working in environmental management system registered steel production facilities. Number of employees and contractors working in registered production facilities / total number of employees and contractors working in production facilities
Social performance
INDICATOR DEFINITION CALCULATION
5. Lost time injury
frequency rate
This indicator measures the number of lost time injuries per million hours worked, including fatalities. (lost time injuries + fatalities) / million hours worked
6. Employee training This indicator measures the total days of training per employee per year. Total days of training / total number of employees
Economic performance
INDICATOR DEFINITION CALCULATION
7. Investment in new processes and
products
This indicator measures the value of investments made on capital expenditure, and research and development. Capital expenditure + research & development expenditure) / annual revenue (consolidated)
8. Economic value
distributed
This indicator measures the economic value distributed to society by the steel industry, including direct and indirect contributions. (Operating costs + employee wages and benefits + dividends paid + Interest payments + payments to government + community investments) / annual revenue (consolidated)

Indicator relevance and worldsteel Sustainability Principles

Environmental performance
INDICATOR RELEVANCE WORLDSTEEL SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES RELEVANT UN SDG*
1. CO2 emissions intensity To achieve the significant CO2 emissions reductions needed, an entirely new, transformative approach
to iron & steel making is required. Several promising approaches to reduce CO2 emissions at an industrial scale are being explored.
Climate action Proactively address climate change and take effective actions to minimise the industry’s GHG emissions. 7. Affordable & clean energy
13. Climate Action
2. Energy intensity Steel production remains energy-intensive. The steel industry is focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of its operations and the use of renewable energy.
3. Material efficiency The recovery and use of co products within and outside the steel industry combined with the responsible management of natural resources contribute to material efficiency and a circular economy. Circular economy Maximise the efficient use of resources throughout the life cycle of steel products and support society to achieve a circular economy. 12. Responsible consumption & production
4. Environmental management system Registered environmental management systems are an effective way to manage environmental performance and to ensure legal
compliance.
Environmental care Conduct operations in an environmentally responsible manner. 3. Good health & well-being
6. Clean water & sanitation
11. Sustainable cities & communities
12. Responsible consumption & production
14. Life below water
15. Life on land
Social performance
INDICATOR DEFINITION SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES RELEVANT UN SDG*
5. Lost time injury frequency rate All injuries and work-related illness can and must be prevented. Measuring safety performance is one aspect of achieving good safety and health standards. Safety and health Maintain a safe and healthy workplace and act on health and safety incidents, risks and opportunities. 3. Good health & well-being 8. Decent work & economic growth
6. Employee training Human capital is a key asset for all organisations and a main driver for the creation of value. Training programmes aim to expand the knowledge and skills of employees and help them to make the best use of their talents. Our people Enable our people to realise their potential while providing them with an inclusive and fair working environment. 4. Quality education
8. Decent work & economic growth
Economic performance
INDICATOR DEFINITION SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES RELEVANT UN SDG*
7. Investment in new processes and products Investments in new processes and R&D contribute to a sustainable steel industry. Innovation and prosperity Pursue innovations for technologies and products to achieve sustainable economic development. 1. No poverty
8. Decent work & economic growth
9. Industry, innovation &
infrastructure
8. Economic value distributed Steel is critical to economic growth. It is important to quantify the value companies create and to establish how much of this wealth is distributed to society.
* United Nations Sustainable Development Goals